A. Kusserow's American Individualisms: Child Rearing and Social Class in PDF
By A. Kusserow
What are tough and smooth individualisms? during this unique ethnography of 3 groups in long island and Queens, Kusserow interviews mom and dad and academics (from filthy rich to these on welfare) at the different types of tough and gentle individualisms they motivate of their kids and scholars. American Individualisms explores the $64000 factor of sophistication changes within the socialization of individualism in the USA. It offers American individualism no longer as one unmarried homogeneous, stereotypic life-pattern as frequently claimed to be, yet as variable, class-differentiated versions of individualism instilled in kids via their mom and dad and preschool academics in long island and Queens. by way of offering wealthy descriptions of the situational, class-based individualisms that take root in groups with greatly assorted visions of the longer term, Kusserow brings social inequality again into formerly bland and widely used discussions of yankee individualism.
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Additional info for American Individualisms: Child Rearing and Social Class in Three Neighborhoods
Other studies have focused on the differing linguistic socialization used in different social classes. (See for example, Heath, 1986; P. ) Heath describes differences between rural white working-class conventions of language use, which employ strict literalism, with those of the middle class, which are increasingly ﬂexible with meaning. Wiley, Rose, Burger, and Miller (1998:833) in their article on constructing autonomous selves through narrative practices, note how two European American communities in Chicago differed in the types of autonomy they promoted among their children: Expressing one’s view is a natural right for middle-class children, but something to be earned and defended for working-class children.
How and why does a community take up and emphasize one strand of individualism as opposed to another? Socialization/Enculturation Anthropologists and psychologists, especially those interested in linguistic and cognitive development, have made great headway into understanding the ways enculturation occurs simultaneously with linguistic, cognitive, moral, and emotional development. Scholars are now beginning to understand the ways cultural emphases on individualism or sociocentrism are simultaneously learned by a child through linguistic (see Miller, 1982; Schieffelin and Ochs, 1984, 1986; Heath, 1986; Miller, 1989), narrative (see Miller, 1984, 1990; Miller and Moore, 1989), cognitive (see Rogoff, 1990; Stigler and Perry, 1990; Stevenson and Lee, 1990; Peak, 1991), moral (see Lebra, 1976; Shweder, Mahapatra, and Miller, 1990; Shweder and Miller, 1991; Shweder and Much, 1991), and emotional ways.
Chapter Two American Individualism and Social Class Revisited My research in New York was primarily an effort to improve upon the rather generic anthropological conceptions of the Western individualistic self in which social class is barely addressed and most often only one kind of individualism is acknowledged. Insofar as my research points to different kinds of individualism in America, I try to complexify and dehomogenize the generic American or Western self used as a foil in so many anthropology texts.
American Individualisms: Child Rearing and Social Class in Three Neighborhoods by A. Kusserow