Air Engines by Theodor Finkelstein PDF
By Theodor Finkelstein
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One disadvantage of these twin engines, when compared with the original single-cylinder design, was that the volume of the ‘cushion air’, or dead space, was relatively large, which diminished the compression ratio and hence the output. 31 times the swept volume of the working air (Popplewell 1897). 25 or less. p. engine, 1 ton per indicated horsepower was quoted so that the specific weight was probably more than 3 tons per brake horsepower (Donkin 1911) From experience gained with this engine, still further improvements were introduced by 1840, as shown in Fig.
Ericsson must have been too confident about the success of such an engine, because his next enterprise in the course of the development of hot-air engines amounted to one of the most spectacular failures in the history of engineering. This was mainly due to the fact that Ericsson failed to appreciate that a good working scheme in one size is not necessarily as good a proposition when the machinery is greatly enlarged. 14 Air Engines Fig. 3 Experimental ‘caloric’ engine designed by Ericsson and built in New York in 1851.
These engines were practically identical to Stirling’s first design, except that they had a horizontal cylinder, direct contact between cylinder bottom and flames, and a more compact link mechanism to reduce overall size (Eckerth 1869a, Röntgen 1888). An early model of the Lehmann engine is shown in Fig. 1. A very long cylinder ABCD was used, closed at the hot end and with the power piston UU reciprocating in the open end, which was kept cool by a water-jacket LMNP. About a third of the cylinder was enclosed by the furnace.
Air Engines by Theodor Finkelstein