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By Saint Basil of Caesarea
Basil of Caesarea is taken into account one of many architects of the Pro-Nicene Trinitarian doctrine followed on the Council of Constantinople in 381, which jap and western Christians to this present day profess as "orthodox." Nowhere is his Trinitarian theology extra essentially expressed than in his first significant doctrinal paintings, opposed to Eunomius, comprehensive in 364 or 365 CE. Responding to Eunomius, whose Apology gave renewed impetus to a convention of starkly subordinationist Trinitarian theology that will live to tell the tale for many years, Basil's opposed to Eunomius displays the serious controversy raging at the moment between Christians around the Mediterranean international over who God is. during this treatise, Basil makes an attempt to articulate a theology either one of God's unitary essence and of the certain beneficial properties that signify the daddy, Son, and Holy Spirit--a contrast that a few hail because the cornerstone of "Cappadocian" theology. In opposed to Eunomius, we see the conflict now not easily of 2 dogmatic positions at the doctrine of the Trinity, yet of 2 essentially adversarial theological equipment. Basil's treatise is as a lot approximately how theology must be performed and what people can and can't find out about God because it is ready the exposition of Trinitarian doctrine. hence opposed to Eunomius marks a turning element within the Trinitarian debates of the fourth century, for the 1st time addressing the methodological and epistemological alterations that gave upward thrust to theological transformations. Amidst the polemical vitriol of opposed to Eunomius is a choice to epistemological humility at the a part of the theologian, a choice to acknowledge the constraints of even the easiest theology. whereas Basil subtle his theology throughout the process his profession, opposed to Eunomius is still a testomony to his early theological improvement and a privileged window into the Trinitarian controversies of the mid-fourth century.
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Extra resources for Against Eunomius (Fathers of the Church)
22. 243. SC 299. 65-74' 245. Eun. 26, and 3·1. 244. Eun. 3 2 . 247. Eun. 22-24- 248. Eun. 1. 246. Eun. 14-17. INTRODUCTION (epinoia). Basil affirms the positive role of conceptualization in theology in response to Eunomius's denigration of it. l, conceptualization allows real knowledge of objects, especially simple objects, without comprehension of their essence. en, he views. '" Origen and Basil interpret names for Christ like 'light' and 'bread' similarly, but differ over 'vine. "" Basil, however, adapts Origen considerably.
On Gregory and Theodore, see Vaggione 185-86; idem, "Of Monks and Lounge Lizards," 184. 17 2 . Only in Eun. 30-31 does Basil cite Eunomius out of order; see Drec~ 0115°· INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Basil's various interpretations and refutations of Eunomius and how they connect with each other. tion of Eunomius's Apology opens with a brief and rather bland creedal statement, which Basil cites. 175 Eunomius claims that this statement is the inerrant rule and criterion governing theological assertions.
L9' And yet Basil enumerates several activities the Spirit does perform: adopting the faithful as sons of God, teaching them, distributing spiritual gifts, scrutinizing the depths of God,'oo giving new life to Christians in Christ, and making them the dwelling-place of God. He appeals to the practice of glorifying the Spirit and counting him along with Father and Son, particularly in the baptismal formula. So, in sum, the Spirit's nature is in some sense divine. And yet the Spirit's dignity and rank remain lesser than the Father's and the Son's, and the Spirit's activities are distinct from theirs.
Against Eunomius (Fathers of the Church) by Saint Basil of Caesarea