ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete - download pdf or read online
By Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445
Transparent knowing of the consequences of torsion on concrete contributors is vital to the secure, least expensive layout of strengthened and prestressed concrete contributors. This document starts with a short and systematic precis of the 180-year background of torsion of structural concrete individuals, new and up-to-date theories and their functions, and a ancient assessment outlining the advance of study on torsion of structural concrete participants. ancient theories and truss types contain classical theories of Navier, Saint-Venant, and Bredt; the third-dimensional (3-D) area truss of Rausch; the equilibrium (plasticity) truss version of Nielson in addition to Lampert and Thürlimann; the compression box concept (CFT) by means of Collins and Mitchell; and the softened truss version (STM) through Hsu and Mo.
This file emphasizes that it really is necessary to the research of torsion in strengthened concrete that contributors should still: 1) fulfill the equilibrium situation (Mohr’s tension circle); 2) obey the compatibility (Mohr’s pressure circle); and three) identify the constitutive relationships of fabrics similar to the “softened” stress-strain dating of concrete and “smeared” stress-strain dating of metal bars. The habit of participants subjected to torsion mixed with bending second, axial load, and shear is mentioned. This file offers with layout matters, together with compatibility torsion, spandrel beams, torsional restrict layout, open sections, and dimension results.
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Additional resources for ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete
The combined-action STM (Greene and Belarbi 2006a, 2009a,b) can also generate torsional-flexural moment interaction curves for members under torsion combined with shear and flexure. 5d shows the interaction curves for two series of beams under combined torsion, shear, and flexure tested by McMullen and Warwaruk (1967). Members of Series 5 and 6 were unsymmetrically reinforced with more longitudinal reinforcement in the bottom side. For comparison, the model by Elfgren et al. (1974a) was also used to predict the interaction curve.
3h(b) had more reinforcement on the flexural tension side. For comparison, the model by Elfgren et al. 1 General—Torsion and shear cause shear stresses across a section, as shown in Fig. 1. The shear stresses t due to the torsional moment T circulate around the section, whereas the vertical shear force V induces shear stress v. The side of the section where the stresses are additive (t + v) is critical in design due to the great intensity of the shearing stresses. Intense stresses increase tensile strains in transverse and longitudinal steel reinforcement and compressive and tensile strains in the concrete.
Also addressed are precast spandrel beams, torsion limit design, treatment of open concrete sections subjected to torsion, and the size effect on torsional members. 1 General—Torsion and flexural moment redistribution are similar in their dependency on adequate ductility in plastic hinge regions. No fundamental difference, therefore, exists between flexural analysis for the case of pure flexure and of torsion. Three standard cases of torsion redistribution have been reported: 1) A spandrel beam loaded by a floor beam 2) An L-beam 3) A spandrel beam in a frame subjected to lateral load.
ACI 445.1R-12 - Report on Torsion in Structural Concrete by Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 445