Download PDF by James Wynbrandt: A Brief History of Pakistan
By James Wynbrandt
Provides the most important occasions, humans, and traditions that experience formed Pakistan. This identify comprises insurance at the The land and its humans; The Indus Valley Civilization; The Vedic Age in Pakistan; The tycoon interval; British rule; The fight for independence; Partition; Civilian and army rule; and, Islamization of Pakistan.
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The landscape was dotted with small kingdoms inhabited by descendants of the Huns, Gurjaras, and allied tribes that had invaded and since settled, and their rajas were in frequent conflict with one another. The Rajput, or sons of the king, inheritors of the Vedic Kshatriya tradition, came to power during this period. Their appellation was both literal and figurative. They were indeed the sons of the monarchs of assorted kingdoms when the title Rajput was adopted. But some began to claim divine descent, and the kings they cited as their fathers included the sun, the moon, and fire.
Exacerbating the outrage, the ship had been carrying gifts from the king of Ceylon to Caliph Walid I (r. 705–715). Hajjaj bin Yousuf, then governor of the Islamic empire’s eastern end, demanded the kingdom’s ruler, Raja Dahir (d. 712), pay for the ship and its cargo and free its passengers. Dahir claimed he held no sway with the pirates, and negotiations broke down. Two limited campaigns against Dahir subsequently failed. Finally Yousuf received permission for a major campaign against all of Sind.
Jainism and Buddhism were the first of the former, which left indelible marks on the region’s society and culture that still echo today. The armies came from Persia, Greece, and Central Asia, each earning a place in the region’s history. Concurrently, the Hindu kingdoms that developed in India from Aryan roots periodically held sway over the Indus region from whence they originated. , near the end of the Indus region’s period of obscurity, spiritual and intellectual revolutions were reshaping the ancient world.
A Brief History of Pakistan by James Wynbrandt